||"Ascent"; in particular, (a) the honor
of being one of those called up to recite one of the blessings over the
Torah; (b) immigration to the Land of Israel.
||A Jew of European origin; pertaining to
||pl. averot. A transgression of one of
the laws of the Torah.
||Our Father Abraham.
||pl. baalot hamitzva. Lit.: "mistress of
the mitzva." A woman who has put a great deal of devotion into performing
a mitzva fully and has succeeded.
||pl. baalei teshuva; fem. baalat teshuva;
fem. pl. baalot teshuva. Lit.: "master of returning," "one who returns."
Any Jewish penitent, but especially a Jew of secular or not fully observant
background who has decided to undertake full Torah observance.
||English corruption of Yiddish bentschen.
Blessing or saying grace after meals.
||pl. brachot. Any kind of blessing or praise
of G-d. In formal liturgy, it opens or closes with the Hebrew for "Blessed
art Thou O L-rd."
||pl. chavurot. A voluntary society or fellowship
of Jews who gather for the purpose of learning, celebrating, or carrying
out certain charitable mitzvot.
||"Lovingkindness"; acts of lovingkindness.
||A casserole-like dish prepared before
the start of Shabbat and kept warm, usually for Shabbat lunch. It was developed
to avoid the prohibitions against cooking on Shabbat.
||The Five Books of Moses (the Pentateuch).
||The entire People or Community of Israel.
||Descendants of the priests of the Temple.
Some of the privileges and prohibitions that applied to them in Temple times,
such as prohibitions against contact with a corpse, are still valid.
||pl. divrei Torah. A brief oral commentary
on a topic from the Torah.
|daven or davenen
||Yiddish for "pray." "Davening' is an English
||Evening, or the day preceding; the beginning
of holy days, which in Judaism start in the evening. Friday is often referred
to as "Erev Shabbat."
||Pertaining to meat or poultry; a category
of the kashrut laws.
||Lit. "pious". One who is fully observant
of the Torah laws.
||Lit. "bringing in guests." Hospitality.
||Jewish law and way of life.
||Key word of blessing pronounced before
|Hashem or haShem
||"The Name"; one of the references to G-d,
whose proper name is never pronounced by observant Jews in regular conversation
||Blessings pronounced over wine at nightfall
at the conclusion of a Shabbat or festival to mark it off from the ordinary
weekdays that follow.
||The Jewish dietary laws.
||The sanctification prayer for Shabbat
and the festivals recited over a cup of wine.
||(Yiddish) To take great pride and pleasure;
a peculiarly Jewish thrill most often associated with the accomplishments
of one's family members.
||A Spanish dialect spoken by many Sephardic
Jews; referring to songs, literature, etc. in Ladino.
|Mashiach or Moshiach
||A physical divider set up between men
and women in the synagogue and other places designated by halacha for the
purpose of concentrating better and preserving tzniut.
||A parchment scroll, usually referring
to the Book (Scroll) of Esther, read on Purim,
||Ushering out the Shabbat; a festive meal
held after the end of Shabbat on Saturday night.
||One's personality or character traits.
||One of the classical interpretations of
the Torah on a non-literal or mystical level.
||The ritual bath for immersing and purifying
people and utensils.
||Pertaining to milk and its by-products;
a category of the kashrut laws.
||Objects which one may not handle or be
concerned with on Shabbat and festivals.
||The first person to leap into the Red
Sea when the Jews were being pursued by the Egyptians, thus a paradigm of
||(Yiddish). Ritual hand-washing done upon
arising in the morning.
||(Yiddish). Candy, sweets.
||pl. niggunim. A melody, often wordless
and repeated several times, which is intended to express and stir one's
|parshah or parashah
||pl. parshiot. The weekly Torah portion.
||A joyous festival celebrating the saving
of the Jews of the Persian Empire. The story is told in the Book of Esther,
which is read during Purim.
||A spiritual leader and teacher of a Jewish
community, particularly a Hassidic one. Sometimes a rebbe is accepted as
a leader by many communities and individuals outside his own.
||A Jew of South European or North African
origin; pertaining to such a Jew.
||"Third Meal." The last of the three festive
meals of Shabbat.
|Shabbat or Shabbes
||Ashkenazi pronunciation of "Shabbat."
||Appropriate for or in the spirit of Shabbat.
||A match, especially for marriage.
||Yiddish for synagogue.
||"Prepared Table." The standard code of
Jewish law and practice compiled by Joseph Karo.
||"Order (of prayer)." The complete traditional
||"Joy." A happy festival or Jewish life-cycle
celebration, e.g., bar mitzva.
||Shawl worn by males during prayer and
fringed with tzitzis.
||Impure according to halacha.
||The basic written source for Chabad Hassidic
philosophy, written by the movement's founder, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi
in the 18th century.
|treif, terephah, or trefeh
||Food forbidden by the kashrut laws.
||Modesty in dress and behavior.
||An academy for the study of Torah. Today
there are also numerous separate yeshivot for women.
||The Torah laws whose purpose is to prevent
the development of close contact with members of the opposite sex to whom
one is not closely related or married.
||A festival or holiday.
|zemirot or z'mirot
||Shabbat and festival songs generally sung
around the table.